Lesson 30. तुमन्त अव्यय s.
Here's a riddle: In how many different ways can you express your thoughts? And here's my answer: Two. The complicated style and the simple style.
The complicated style:
- " I want food. Therefore I go into the kitchen.",
The simple style:
- "I go into the kitchen to eat food ( for the purpose of eating food.)"
Do you not think that the second sounds better? Well, you can put that 'easy on the ear' sentence in different ways.
1. When the word‚ अर्थम् is attached to a noun, the newly formed avyaya conveys the meaning.. for the purpose of. For example...
- भोजनार्थम् अहं पाकगृहं गच्छामि । I go into the kitchen to eat food. I go into the kitchen for the purpose of eating food.
Instead of a long drawn out.... I want food. Therefore I go into the kitchen ....‚अहं भोजनम् इच्छामि । अतः अहं पाकगृहं गच्छामि ।
- अध्ययनार्थं अहं पाठशालां गच्छामि । I go to school to study; I go to school for the purpose of studying.
- स्नानार्थं सा सरोवरं गच्छति । She goes to the lake to bathe; She goes to the lake for the purpose of bathing.
2. The चतुर्थी विभक्तिः also conveys the same meaning.
भोजनाय अहं पाकगृहम् अगच्छम् ।
अध्ययनाय अहं पाठशालां गच्छामि ।
स्नानाय सा सरोवरं गच्छति ।
3. Coming to the topic of study
....... the very same meaning is conveyed by the हेत्वर्थक तुमन्त अव्यय s. अव्यय s that end in तुम् । हेत्वर्थक = हेतु +अर्थक which mean " for the purpose of."
A small list of तुमन्त अव्यय s is given in Supplement 18
. As we develop our vocabulary and understanding, we can build a more detailed list that will encompass words that we frequently use.
Since they are अव्यय s , they do not 'metamorphosize' into anything other than what is given in the list.
Use these avyayas with I, you, he , she ....the word remains the same.
So i would say....
- भोजनं खादितुम् अहं पाकगृहम् अगच्छम् ।
- अध्ययनं कर्तुम् अहं पाठशालां गच्छामि ।
- स्नातुं सा सरोवरं गच्छति ।
Two verbs most frequently used along with these avyayas are
इष् (इच्छति ) want .......I want to drink water, I want to go to the garden etc...
शक् (शक्नोति ) possible. It is not possible for me to drink cold water. It is possible for me to read Sanskrit but not possible for me to speak it fluently.....
Do you see now how these verbs and the tumant avyayas form a team?
You already know how to conjugate the इष् (इच्छति) want. शक् is 5. P.P. Let me give you just the present tense form of शक् to help you form sentences of your own.
शक् 5.P.P. possible . लट् लकारः Present tense.
|| सः / सा / तत् शक्नोति
|| तौ / ते / ते शक्नुतः
ते / ताः / तानि शक्नुवन्ति
|| त्वं शक्नोषि
|| युवां शक्नुथः
|| यूयं शक्नुथ
|| अहं शक्नोमि
|| आवां शक्नुवः
|| वयं शक्नुमः
Onward to Lesson 30 A-- Exercises with तुमन्त अव्ययs.
Prev Lesson 29 B -- Appetizer Lesson Answers to Lesson 29 A. (Answers to Lesson 29 A)
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