Lesson 13 A Exercises with Triteeyaa Vibhakti

 Nouns   Verbs
Avyayas for the
  तृतीया विभक्ति
       बाणः arrow M
       वस्त्रम् clothing N 
     चुर् (चोरयति) to steal
     क्षिप्  (क्षिपति) to throw
     सह /सार्धम् /साकम्  /
     समम्     with
       युद्धम् battle/war N        भक्ष् (भक्षयति) toeat      विना  without
       भाषणम्  speech N       तड् (ताडयति) to beat/to hit  
       वल्कलम् / लः  Clothing worn by ascetics made of  the bark of trees. N / M
       मनोरथः   Daydream M
     आ + कर्ण् (आकर्णयति)
     to hear
     भ्रम् (भ्रमति /भ्राम्यति )
     to wander or stroll. 
       वृद्ध: old man M        धृ (धारयति ) to wear.  
       श्रमः hard-work. M       धृ (धरति) to hold  
       हस्तः hand M    
       पादः foot/leg M
       अश्वः  horse M  
       दण्डः  stick M    
       नेत्रम्  eye N    
       कर्णः ear M    




Note: धृ धातु , when conjugated differently, {धृ (धारयति ) to wear. धृ (धरति) to hold } has two different meanings.
विना (without) goes with the second, third and the fifth vibhakti.

1. अहं रामेण सह विद्यालयं गच्छामि  |  I go to school with Ram.
2. अहं रामेण विना विद्यालयं न गच्छामि | I do not go to school without Ram.



Languages are unique...try to translate some sentences of one language into another and we land up with preposterous statements. These two sentences  are an example. सह means "with" ...but is used specifically with the trtiya vibhakti when you wish to say "with someone. ( as in a person)" So translated it becomes "with with someone."  
Therefore मालया सह, देवेन सह, राधया सह, शिष्येन सह  etc. 
If you say अहं कन्दुकेन क्रीडामि you mean that you are playing with a ball.  If you say अहं कन्दुकेन सह क्रीडामि the idea that you convey is you and the ball are pals and the two of you are playing together while you talk and laugh and fight and do whatever kids do when they play. (Hope the difference comes through clearly.)


रामेण विना translated is "with Rama without"...ridiculous in English, but accurate in Sanskrit. Also accurate is रामं विना |
3. रामः ईश्वरेण सह (सार्धं वा साकं वा समं वा) खेलति | Ram is playing with Ishwar. (You can choose any one of the four. i personally prefer सह | But i keep the rest in mind so that i recognize them when they do crop up in texts.)


4. रामः ईश्वरः च खेलतः| Ram and Ishwar are playing. (Do you see how the two sentences are different? In sentence 3, since Ram is playing with Ishwar, Ishwar falls into the तृ०वि०  and Ram becomes the subject...therefore the verb has to be खेलति |  In sentence 4, we have two subjects therefore the verb has to be खेलतः |)
 A. Translate (Sometimes, the verb is not stated. It has to be inferred.)
बाणेन युद्धं न तु भाषणेन       ज्ञानेन साधुः न तु वल्कलेन |
रथेन यात्रा न मनोरथेन         श्रमेण विद्या न तु पुस्तकेन ||



तु  means "but". In most cases it is used  as a filler to help keep the metre of the poetic line intact. Other such fillers are हि , च , वा , वै |

B. Choose the correct word from those given in the bracket.
• महेशः ________  लिखति | (  हस्तं , हस्तः ,हस्तेन )
• जनकः _________( मोदकैः , मोदकाः ,मोदकौ ) _____(मुखाभ्यां ,
          मुखेन ,मुखैः )__________(खादतः , खादन्ति ,खादति ) |
• _____(सुरेशाभ्याम्  , सुरेशं ,सुरेशः ) _____(पुष्पैः , पुष्पे ,पुष्पेण ) _____
(पश्यामि , पश्यतः ,पश्यति )|
C. Correct the following sentences.
चेतनं सह सचिनं गच्छामि |        अहं विद्यालयैः  गच्छति |
अश्वः पादाभ्यां धावति |       सः कन्दुकः सह खेलति |
D. Translate.
 1. There goes the old man.
 2. He is walking.
 3. He is walking with a stick.
 4. You see the old man.
 5. You see the old man with one eye.
 6. Now you see the old man with two eyes.
 7. Here are clothes.
 8. I hold the clothes with my hand.
 9. I wear the clothes.
10. Amar is a man.
11. He is running.
12. He runs with two legs.
13. He is running towards Ramesh.
14. Now Amar and Ramesh are running towards the garden .
15. The two of you are writing.
16. The two of you are writing with your two hands.
17. Shiva is walking with Geeta, Surekha and Madhava.
18. The teacher is strolling with the student.
19. They see a boy.
20. He is playing with a stick.
21. Shyam is playing with a ball.
22. Raghava is playing with a stick and a ball.
23. The thief is stealing the wealth with his hands.
24. The father is beating the thief with a stick.
25. The thief throws the wealth.
26. The thief is running with his legs.
27. The father is also running with his legs .
28. He throws the stick, holds the thief with his hand and beats the thief with his hands.
29. The father holds the wealth and stick  with his hands and goes home.
                                                                            Answers follow in the next Lesson 13 B

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