Lesson 9. Of Caterpillars and Non Caterpillars

Usage of Avyayas (Indeclinable) Introduced

Much as you have been introduced to verbs and nouns that change their
shape and size at the drop of a hat, there are some heartwarming, steady
ones that never, ever "metamorphosize." ( Ah! NOW the reference to
caterpillars becomes clear! )

You can use them with any noun, verb, vibhakti, gender, tense, you name it,
they hold their own, in a changing world. They are called‚ अव्यय s. Let's go
through a group of them in every lesson .

Sanskrit English Hindi
     किं   /   किम्          What         क्या
     अत्र              Here       यहाँ
     तत्र      There


     यत्र      From-where (whence)       जहाँ
     कुत्र      Where       कहाँ
     एकत्र      Altogether

      साथ में  / इकट्ठे 


     सर्वत्र      Everywhere       सब जगह
     अन्यत्र      Elsewhere       किसी और जगह




So I can accurately say
अहं तत्र गच्छामि। त्वं तत्र गच्छसि। सः तत्र गच्छति। रामः तत्र गच्छति।
आवां तत्र गच्छावः ।  ....and so on and so forth.



Having introduced our Non- Caterpillars, shall we get familiar with our
In a sentence such as " Ram is eating a ladoo,"  Ram is the subject.
Therefore you pick the word Ram from the  प्रथमा विभक्ति ।  रामः ।
The verb is " is eating" and HAS to follow the subject. Since रामः is from
the प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन ( Third Person Singular...according to English
Grammar) the verb also has to be from the प्रथमपुरुष एकवचन ... खादति ।
The object that is being gobbled up is the ladoo (मोदक  ...the root word)
The object form of the word मोदक is मोदकं ...
Therefore the sentence becomes.. रामः मोदकं खादति।

CLUE: Whenever a sentence is constructed or translated, grab (for dear
life) the verb and its subject. THEN add the rest of the words to complete
the sentence.

Let's add an अव्यय ।
रामः मोदकम् अत्र खादति।  ।  Ram is eating a ladoo here.
रामः मोदकं तत्र खादति। ।  Ram is eating a ladoo there.
Let's change the subject AND along with it, the verb.
अहं मोदकम् अत्र खादामि । I am eating a ladoo here.
अहं मोदकं तत्र खादामि । I am eating a ladoo there.
त्वं मोदकम् अन्यत्र खादसि। You are eating a ladoo elsewhere.(Probably
averse to sharing it. )
त्वं मोदकं सर्वत्र खादसि। You are eating a ladoo everywhere.(Don't even
try and imagine it.)


( New Concept:  

मोदक is a masculine word. Whenever i introduce NEW
masculine words to you, i shall put an ( M) next to it, neuter words will be
introduced with an (N) and feminine words with an (F). To use them in
sentences, change the word according to the विभक्ति table to include a
preposition )

Rules that must be followed.
1.  The verb HAS to agree with the कर्ता,  the subject.

अहं गच्छति is an absolute no no.
2.   The conjugation(Changes in a verb form) of the verb in its
various forms remains the same for all three genders. The verb
is bound by पुरुष person and वचन number, not by लिङ्ग gender.
रामः खादति,  सा खादति,  माला खादति,  तत् न खादति ।
3.  The subject  कर्ता  is ALWAYS  in the प्रथमा विभक्तिः  and the
object कर्म  is ALWAYS in the द्वितीया विभक्तिः ।
गज (elephant, M ), मोदक (laddoo, M)
गजः मोदकं खादति is translated as The elephant is eating a
गजं मोदकः खादति ... The ladoo is eating an elephant.


                                   Thou shalt tread this path with care.
New Concept:
Whenever you use गम्  in its verb, or other yet to be introduced forms,
the place to where the "going to" happens ALWAYS is in the द्वितीया विभक्ति ।  ( Easier to say, add the म्  or the anuswaar to wherever you are going to.)
अहं विद्यालयं गच्छामि । गजः वनं गच्छति। सः गृहं गच्छति।  
गच्छामि विद्यालयम् अहम् ।

                                                    The faithful shall follow me into solving the exercises in Lesson 9 A.



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