Lesson 76. भाववाचक संज्ञा  Abstract nouns
You are already familiar with abstract nouns and use them very often. This lesson is a quick recap of what you know. With the new additions, I have tried to add as many words as you might need to know about. Relax..... whenever you wish to create an abstract noun and are not sure when to add which प्रत्यय ,  try your luck with all then cross-refer a dictionary to see which word is accurate. The idea here is to be able to recognize the भाववाचक संज्ञा when you see it.
 4 different प्रत्यय s tell you that these words are भाववाचक संज्ञा. They may end in
1. त्वम् 
2. ता
3. य
4.  इमन्


You may add any one of these प्रत्यय s to some words to create a भाववाचक संज्ञा, To others only one of the above may apply. Let us not get too much into the details of which of the two rules apply. Let's simply learn to recognize them in texts. Eventually, we can cover the "hows and whys" in special shiviram-s.
An addition of य /अ to some words does not change the meaning of the original word. Just a few examples for you to go by
बन्धु  ► बान्धवः             प्रज्ञ   ►   प्राज्ञः            रक्षस्  ►   राक्षस्             करुणा ► कारुण्यम्          
चतुर्वर्ण  ►  चातुर्वर्ण्यम्             सेना  ► सैन्यम्           समीप  ►  सामीप्यम्        त्रैलोक्य ►    त्रैलोक्यम् 


A few explanations:
For 1.  and 2. above:
With the addition of  त्वम् प्रत्यय, the भाववाचक  noun turns into  a नपुंसकलिङ्गी पद (to be declined like गृहम् ); while the addition of ता प्रत्यय, makes the resultant भाववाचक  noun into a स्त्रीलिङ्गी  पद (to be declined like रमा).  For example,
1. लघु  ► लघुत्वम्   लघुता
    गुरु  ► गुरुत्वम्    गुरुता
    विद्वस्   ► विद्वत्त्वम्   विद्वत्ता
You may please try the same for  the nouns : ब्राह्मण, क्षत्रिय, शूद्र, हीन, दीन, मूर्ख, खिन्न, दुष्ट, महत् । 
There are following  small exceptions  to the above rule.
1. In देव the addition of ता  does not interfere with the original meaning of the word, and, 
2. In the following words, the addition of ता means a multitude.
    ग्राम  ► ग्रामता  = a multitude of villages. similar is the case with जन ►जनता,  बन्धु  ►बन्धुता, सहाय ► सहायता , गज ► गजता the latter in the pair of words  signify multitudes of the respective words.


For 3 above: .
Addition of य . Make a वृद्धि of the first स्वर and a लोप  of the ending अ , then add the य
       शूर      ►  शौर्यम्
       सुन्दर   ► सौन्दर्यम् 
       धीर     ►  धैर्यम्
       सुख    ►  सौख्यम्
Do the same for: ब्राह्मण, विदग्ध , कवि, मधुर , चतुर,  निपुण, दीन,  शुभ, मङ्गल , शुक्ल , कृष्ण , दृढ ,  षड्गुण  ।


For 4 above :
Addition of इमन्
Look at the example below and use it for all the other words listed.
To the  root word,  an adjective, make  a लोप  of the ending स्वर  if there is one. Add the इमन् . If there is a ऋ in the word, it gets converted into a र् , The root word will be, for example, महिमन्, The प्रथमा विभक्तिः is महिमा and is always पुल्लिङ्गी।
लघु    ►  लघिमन्  लघिमा  |  गुरु  ► गरिमन्    गरिमा |  महत् ► महिमन्    महिमा | मृदु ► म्रदिमन्    म्रदिमा |
अणु   ►  अणिमन्  अणिमा |

Do the same for:  तनु ,  पटु , स्वादु ,  दृढ , शीत , उष्ण , जड , मधुर ।


5. Words ending in इ, उ or ऋ , with a हृस्व स्वर before those listed, need an अ added to them to convert them into भाववाचक-संज्ञा s.
शुचि  ► शौचम्
मुनि   ► मौनम्
पृथु     ► पार्थवम्
6. Words ending in पति , पुरोहित or the word राजन्  by itself..... Do a वृद्धि of the first स्वर then add the य ।
सेनापति ► सैनापत्यम् |  पुरोहित  ► पौरोहित्यम्  |  राजन्    ►  राज्यम्
7. प्राणी, जातिवाचक, आयुवाचक  words, add an अ ।
अश्व    ► आश्वम् |   कुमार   ►  कौमार्यम्  |  किशोर   ►कैशोरम्  |  युवन्    ►  यौवनम् 


Here ends the lesson on Absract Nouns भाववाचक संज्ञा
                                            We now proceed to the "Unseen Past Tense" लिट् लकार in Lesson 77


Prev Lesson 75 ----- इच्छार्थकरुपाणि (इच्छार्थकरुपाणि ) Next Lesson 77 ----- लिट् लकार The "unseen" past tense. (The "unseen" past tense.)