Lesson 74. Nominal verbs नामधातुः
Have we often not heard someone say, "Look at that nut! Does he think himself to be Amitabh Bachhan?" Wouldn't it be great to say that in the Sanskrit?
That's when the नामधातुः comes to the rescue.
It is quite similar to the च्विप्रयोग and you will find that you can often substitute one form for the other. Viva la options!!
The नामधातु doesn't make use of the कृ or the भू धातु | It uses the root noun or adjective and converts it into a new verb altogether by the addition of a य at the end of the noun / adjective and the प्रत्यय |
There are numerous kinds of नामधातुः but we shall concentrate on only two oft used forms..... examples…
The first is an A.P form …the आत्मनेपदरूपम् |
The second is a P.P form …the परस्मैपदरूपम् | In this case, if the original noun ends in an अ then it is necessarily converted into an ई |
Though a completely new verb form has been created, generally only the present tense form is seen used.
A) The first option is used when you want to say...
1. Someone believes himself to be / behaves like a particular thing. Here the noun forms are used.
By adorning himself with a peacock feather, the crow thinks that he is a peacock. मयूरपिच्छेन अलङ्कृतः काकः मयूरायते |
2. The adjectives add a new dimension to something.
Cool coal blackens the hand.
शीतः अङ्गारः करं कृष्णायते |
B) The second option, if used without an object, is used when you wish to say someone desires something.
The farmer wishes for a palace.
कृषकः प्रासादीयति |
The second option, if used with an object, is used when someone considers somebody something.
The teacher treats his shishya as his own son.
अध्यापकः शिष्यं पुत्रीयति |
Please note that a sentence like the one above requires an object.
If I had just said अध्यापकः पुत्रीयति , I would have meant that the teacher desires a son. Since the नामधातु itself has an ई at the end of the noun, it would be difficult indeed to figure out if the teacher wanted a son or a daughter. The solution is simple. Read the sentence in context with the passage that you picked it from; and not in isolation.
I could also say that one desires a son by using काम्य in the middle of my word.
For example: पुत्रकाम्यति |
Now let me add another problem to your lives:
The addition of य is not a hard and fast rule. There are words like कृष्णति which are also नामधातु s, which would mean that someone is like Krishna. Whenever you come across a word which is a combination of a noun/adjective with a verb ending, it might be a नामधातु , Read the sentence and then try figure out what the word might mean.
There are several rules that define how a नामधातु can be created. As and when my understanding of the subject grows, I'll pass that unto you... till then I'm afraid, this lesson will have to suffice
Sometimes I dare to wonder if the Harappan and Mohenjodaro script may be easier to decipher.
Let's look at a few sentences to see how these forms are used and as homework, just try and translate them into English. These sentences may be popular subhashitas, from our classics or are standard sentences often used by teachers to teach this concept…
1. प्रासादशिखरस्थः अपि काकः न गरुडायते |
2. निरस्तपादपे देशे एरण्डोऽपि द्रुमायते |
3. कर्णः अर्जुनायते |
4. आपत्सु सताम् अपि मतिः दोलायते |
5. किङ्करः गृहीयते |
6. दुर्वासाः मुनिः अन्यैः मुनिभिः सह कलहायते |
7. भो द्विज, चिरायते तव पुत्रः |
8. गृहिणी सेविकां सखीयति |
9. अङ्गीकृतसुहृत्कार्याः सज्जनाः न कदापि मन्दायन्ते |
10. दुःखायते खलु मे हृदयम् |
11. सज्जनमुखे दोषाः गुणायन्ते दुर्जनमुखे तु गुणाः दोषायन्ते |
12. कानिचित् दिव्यानि रत्नानि रात्रौ दीपायन्ते |
13. मूर्खः ज्ञानकाम्यति |
14. छेदेऽपि चन्दनतरुः सुरभयति मुखं कुठारस्य |
15. बालिका अम्बाति |
16. सम्पूर्णकुम्भः शब्दं न करोति परन्तु अर्धः घटः शब्दायते |
17. जनन्या प्रेम्णा दीयमानं पयः अपि अमृतायते |
18. दुर्जनाः मद्यं पीत्वा कलहायन्ते |
19. वृद्धस्य शरीरं जीर्यति परन्तु तस्य तृष्णा तरुणायते |
20. पूर्णिमायाम् उदधिः फेनायते |
21. दुःखितस्य नरस्य सर्वाः दिशः श्यामायन्ते |
22. आवेष्टितं महासर्पैः चन्दनं न विषायते |
23. दुर्जनसङ्गः अस्माकं मनः मलिनयति |
24. नूनम् अनपत्या मां वत्सलयति इति दुष्यन्तः अब्रवीत् |
25. आश्रमे ध्यानपराः ऋषयः तपस्यन्ति |
This should be sufficient practice.
Thus ends the lesson on Namadhatu नामधातुः We go forward to Lesson 75. इच्छार्थकरुपाणि
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