Lesson 71. सति सप्तमी सतः षष्ठी च
"Let me sing you a song while you try and fall asleep."
"Even if you have been naughty, I love you."
How often would we have heard those beautiful words from the person we loved most as children?
So far we've used the words यदा /तदा and यद्यपि/तथापि to express these kinds of ideas. Here's another way to do this….
Whenever we wish to put two different ideas or actions together in one sentence (wherein one action is performed with reference to the other), and where the subjects of both actions are different, we use the सति सप्तमी or the सतः षष्ठी |
The former - सति सप्तमी- is used in both, a general sentence conveying contempt and a simple straightforward idea, whereas the latter - सतः षष्ठी - is used only when one wishes to show contempt or disregard.
There are a few points that we must keep in mind. But before you go further, please go over all the participle lessons and recall howthey are used.
To come back to the subject we are studying:
1. That part of the sentence which says…." While / when such and such a thing was happening / had happened / will happen … "MUST" contain a participle. The participle and the noun it qualifies must both be in either the सप्तमी or the षष्ठी विभक्तिः |
So a simple sentence like
When the mango fell, Kishore laughed
यदा आम्रम् अपतत् तदा किशोरः अहसत्
is converted into
आम्रे पतिते, किशोरः अहसत् |
• The यदा तदा are first dropped and
• the noun and the verb in the first part of the sentence which indicates when the action took place are then chosen. आम्रम् अपतत्
• The verb is converted into a participle to match the tense in the sentence. अपतत् first gets converted into पतितम्
• Both the noun and the participle are put into the सप्तमी or the षष्ठी विभक्तिः (based on whether you want to show contempt or not.)
Lets look at another example:
The boy is reading a book when the teacher enters the class
यदा बालकः पुस्तकं पठन् अस्ति तदा अध्यापकः वर्गं प्रविशति
बालके पुस्तकं पठति अध्यापकः वर्गं प्रविशति
Some more examples:
• When the sun shone, the birds sang. सूर्ये प्रकाशिते, खगाः अगायन् |
• काकः कृष्णः पिकः कृष्णः को भेदः पिककाकयोः |
वसन्तसमये प्राप्ते काकः काकः पिकः पिकः ||
काक : The crow कृष्ण: (is) black पिक: The cuckoo कृष्ण: (is) black को (कः) what is भेदः the difference पिककाकयोः : between the cuckoo and the crow?
वसन्तसमये प्राप्ते When Spring is obtained ( When it is Spring, the difference becomes apparent) काकः काकः पिकः पिकः that the crow is a crow and the cuckoo, a cuckoo.
2. That participle and noun which will be placed in the सप्तमी or the षष्ठी विभक्तिः indicates the time that the second action is done. In other words, the second action is done with reference to the action placed in the सप्तमी or the षष्ठी विभक्तिः | (When the child cried, the mother came running).
अपत्ये क्रन्दिते माता धावन्ती आगच्छत् |
3. The participle can be either past (पठितवत् ,पठित), present (पठत् , पठ्यमान ) or the potential (पठितव्य , पठनीय , पठ्य), depending on the tense you wish to convey.
4. The passive participle of an अकर्मक-धातु can be used along with the subject in a कर्तरि वाक्य रचना |
For example: रामः सुप्तः
रामः गतः and रामेण गतम् are both correct.
Naturally, in the सति सप्तमी or the सतः षष्ठी formation, the कर्ता and the participle will be in the सप्तमी or the षष्ठी विभक्ति |
While the lion slept, the deer played
सिंहे सुप्ते मृगाः क्रीडितवन्तः |
5. In the case of सकर्मक –धातु s, you can use two different participles..... one in the active voice and the other in the passive. For example,
"While the boy ate a modak, a mouse came in the classroom." I could translate this in two ways:
बालके मोदकं खादितवति (सप्तमी of खादितवान् ) एकः मूषकः वर्गं प्राविशत् |
बालकेन मोदके खादिते एकः मूषकः वर्गं प्राविशत् |
The कर्म and the participle will be in सप्तमी or the षष्ठी विभक्तिः if you use the क्त प्रत्ययः |
The कर्ता and the participle will be in सप्तमी or the षष्ठी विभक्तिः if you use the क्तवतु प्रत्ययः |
6. Since they are participles, they will work as adjectives…
While he ate a modak /तस्मिन् मोदकं खादितवति
while a modak was being eaten by him: /तेन मोदके खादिते |
While she eats two modaks / तस्यां मोदके खादन्त्याम्
while two modaks were being eaten by her / तया मोदकयोः खाद्यमानयोः |
When many modaks will /should be eaten by it.
तेन मोदकेषु खादितव्येषु / तेन मोदकेषु खादनीयेषु,/ तेन मोदकेषु खाद्येषु |
The participle agrees with the noun in gender and number.
7. The participle here works as the verb for one part of the sentence. Either a participle or an actual verb does the same job for the rest of the sentence.
तेन मोदके खादिते सा ततः गतवती / अगच्छत्, While a modak was being eaten by him, she went from there.
8. The subjects in the two ideas / actions you wish to talk about MUST not be the same. In the example above, ( When the sun shone, the birds sang. सूर्ये प्रकाशिते, खगाः अगायन् | ), one subject is the sun, the second, the birds.
9. If the subjects were the same, the सति सप्तमी or the सतः षष्ठी can't be used.
Rama, after he had taken Lanka, returned to Ayodhya..... Here the subject 'Rama' is the same in both the parts of the sentence. It would therefore be translated as लङ्कां गृहीत्वा, रामः अयोध्यां प्रत्यागच्छत् /पुनरागतः |
Rama, after the monkeys had taken Lanka, returned to Ayodhya.
With the first subject being 'Rama' and the second being 'monkeys' the सति सप्तमी can be very artistically used. कपिषु लङ्कां गृहीतवत्सु रामः अयोध्यां प्रत्यागच्छत् / पुनरागतः |
10. A look at how the सतः षष्ठी is used.
The thieves stole the money even as the policeman was guarding the house.
नगररक्षकस्य गृहं रक्षितवतः चोराः धनम् अचोरयन् |
The thieves stole the money even as the house was being guarded by the policeman.
नगररक्षकेण गृहस्य रक्षितस्य चोराः धनम् अचोरयन् |
11. A look at how the three different participles are used:
While the boy watched T.V, the girl read a book.
बालके दूरदर्शनं दृष्टवति बालिका ग्रन्थं पठितवती |
While T.V. was being watched by the boy, the girl read a book.
बालकेन दूरदर्शने दृष्टे बालिका ग्रन्थं पठितवती |
While Vikramaditya is looking after the kingdom, the enemy cannot do anything .
विक्रमादित्ये राज्यं पालयति, रिपवः किमपि कर्तुं न शक्नुवन्ति |
If the teacher should enter, please sit quietly.
अध्यापके प्रविष्टव्ये, कृपया तूष्णीम् उपविशन्तु |
A) Use the सतः षष्ठी if you wish to suggest the following:
1. In spite of
3. For all (For all / notwithstanding / in spite of the shopkeeper's looking on, the rat steals the ladoo. ) आपणिकस्य पश्यतः मूषकः मोदकं चोरयति |
B) Use the सति सप्तमी if you wish to suggest the following:
(Since death is certain, why fear? मृत्यौ निश्चिते भयेन किम्)
C) Use the सति सप्तमी with एव or मात्र or with मात्र with or without एव attached to the participle if you wish to suggest the following:
1. As soon as
2. No sooner-than
3. Scarcely when
4. The moment that
(As soon as / no sooner / scarcely when / the moment that..... he entered, the people cheered.
प्रविष्टमात्र एव तस्मिन् जनाः जयजयकारान् अकुर्वन् |)
A) Translate:..... Please try your hand at both the active and passive participles in the same sentence whenever it is warranted.
1. In spite of your looking on, the cat will definitely steal the milk from the vessel.
2. The people talked loudly, notwithstanding that the Guru was sitting on the dais in the assembly hall.
3. For all her scolding, he does not study.
4. In spite of the child crying with hunger, the mother did not give it milk.
5. Men commit misdeeds, though Gods see them.
6. While the parents were sleeping, Siddharth ran away from the palace.
7. Even if it should rain, the crops may not grow.
8. Inspite of the gardener protecting the garden, the old ladies took away the flowers.
9. The thieves stole the car, notwithstanding the policemen walking on the road.
10. Inspite of the Guru’s advice, the disciples were lazy.
11. Inspite of my looking on, the milk boiled over and fell onto the kitchen platform.
"The moment the food is ready, come and tell me."
1. When Rama had gone to the forest, Dasharatha breathed his last.
2. When Rama went in search of the golden deer, Ravana kidnapped Sita.
3. No sooner was an arrow discharged, than the hunter heard someone crying.
4. When the Sun rises in the East, the whole world is filled with light.
5. When man is besieged by calamities, even friends become enemies.
6. As soon as the lecture is over, the students will run out of the school.
7. Who can trouble us, while God protects us?
8. The moment that the child cries, the mother picks it up.
9. Scarcely had the bus started to move, than there was a loud explosion.
10. While the students were thus laughing, the teacher walked into the class.
B) Read and understand:
1. क्षीणे पुण्ये मर्त्यलोकं विशन्ति | ( गीता ९ : २१ )
2. अभ्रेषु धावत्सु शशी धावन् इव दृश्यते | (आत्मबोधः )
3. इन्द्रियेषु व्यापृतेषु आत्मा व्यापारी इव दृश्यते | (आत्मबोधः )
4. भूतेषु नश्यत्सु सः न नश्यति | (गीता ८ : २० )
5. इन्द्रियेषु स्वेषु स्वेषु अर्थेषु वर्तमानेषु, युक्तः “अहं करोमि “ इति न मन्यते | (गीता ५ :८ ,९)
6. उभयोः सेनयोः योद्धकामेषु अर्जुनः तान् ईक्षितुम् इच्छति | (गीता १ : २२ ,२३ )
7. पाण्डवे विषीदति, माधवः तस्मिन् प्रसीदति | (गीता २ :१० ,११ )
8. मयि तिष्ठति, कुतः तव भयम् ?
9. श्रेष्ठे पतिते इतरे अपि जनाः पतन्ति | (गीता ३ :२१)
10. स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसङ्करः | (गीता १ : ४१)
11. शुष्के नीरे कः कासारः ? (भज गोविन्दम् )
12. वयसि गते कः कामविकारः ? (भज गोविन्दम् )
13. क्षीणे वित्ते कः परिवारः ? (भज गोविन्दम् )
14. ज्ञाते तत्त्वे कः संसारः ? (भज गोविन्दम् )
15. कुलधर्मेषु उत्सन्नेषु मनुष्याणां नरके वासः भविष्यति | (गीता १ :४४ )
16. महर्षिषु त्वां स्तुवत्सु, विस्मिताः गन्धर्वाः त्वां वीक्षन्ते | (गीता ११ :२२ )
17. तव दशनान्तरेषु केषुचित चूर्णितेषु अन्ये केचित् तव वक्त्राणि विशन्ति | (गीता ११ :२७ )
18. दक्षिणासु नीयमानासु नचिकेतसं दुःखम् आविवेश | (कठोपनिषद् )
19. चन्द्रशेखरे मां रक्षति, किं करिष्यति वै यमः ?
20. दुःखेषु प्राप्तेषु न तस्य उद्वेगः, सुखेषु प्राप्तेषु न स्पृहा | ( गीता २ : ५६ )
In this connection please note the following subhashita
कोलाहले काककुलस्य जाते विराजते कोकिलकूजितं किम्।
परस्परं संवदतां खलानां मौनं विधेयं सततं सुधीभिः॥
When a group of evil persons are arguing about (in a nonsensical manner, in shrill tones) it is better that a wise man does not intervene and keeps his counsel to himself, just as, when the crows are crowing, will the (sweet sound) of the cuckoo be heard with appreciation?
Please note the first line of the subhashita highlights sati saptami and the the second line satah shashthi
Here ends Satah Shashthi and Sati Saptami Lesson
We go to lesson 72 to look at Causal Verbs प्रेरणार्थकक्रियाविचारः
Prev Lesson 70 ----- उपपद/कारक -विभक्तिः सप्तमीविभक्तिः Level 2. The seventh vibhakti. ( Level 2. The seventh vibhakti.)
Next Lesson 72 ----- Causal verbs. प्रेरणार्थकक्रियाविचारः ( प्रेरणार्थकक्रियाविचारः )