Lesson 67. उपपद /कारक विभक्तिः चतुर्थी विभक्तिः Level 2. The fourth vibhakti.
Here is the list of words for the fourth.
|| 1. अलम्
|पद / धातु
|| 1. सम्प्रदान
2. कृध् , कुप् , कथ् ,दा ,अर्प् ,उपविश् ,निवेदय ,द्रुह् ,ईर्ष्य् ,असूय्
5. धारय् owe
6. क्लृप् कल्पते (होना ,के लिये ),
7. प्रति + श्रु , आ + श्रु (to promise)
8. That which is foreboded by a significant phenomenon is placed in the dative, the fourth vibhakti
9. प्रणिपत् , प्रणम् ( also accusative, the second vibhakti)
|पद / धातु
|| 11. सुखम्
14. Verbs meaning to despatch or send
15. दर्शयति ( also accusative.)
16. The secondary object with the root , to think, takes either the dative or accusative when contempt is to be shown
17. When physical motion is indicated, the place to which it is directed is either accusative or dative.
18. The person who is propitiated or to whom questions regarding welfare or good fortune are asked
• अलम् a match for; sufficient
अरीभ्यः भीमः अलम् | Bheema is a match for the enemies.
When‚ अलम् means 'enough' it is used with the तृतीया .
अलं खादनेन ! Enough of eating!
• नमः salutations
नमः शिवाय | Salutations to Shiva.
But when नमः is used in combination with the कृ धातु , then the second vibhakti is used.
सः देवं नमस्करोति | He salutes the Lord.
देवं नमस्कृत्य सः अध्ययनं करोति | Having saluted the Lord, he studies.
• स्वस्ति (A blessing)
स्वस्ति तुभ्यम् | May auspiciousness be upon you!
• स्वाहा / वषट् These terms are used when offering oblations to the gods.
• स्वधा This term is used when offering oblations to one's ancestors.
• स्वागतम् welcome
स्वागतं तुभ्यम् ! Welcome to you!
पद / धातुः
तेन देवाय पुष्पं दत्तम् | The Lord was offered a flower by him.
The declension of the pada denoting the person who is given something is governed by चतुर्थी विभक्तिः (fourth vibhakti.)
• कृध्, कुप्, कथ्, दा,अर्प्, उपविश्, निवेद, द्रुह् ,ईर्ष्य्, असूय्, ख्या, शंस्, चक्ष्
The person towards whom the above actions (and other verbs conveying the same meanings) are directed , is governed by the fourth vibhakti:
• कृध्, कुप् To be angry. माता पुत्राय कुप्यति | The mother is angry with her son.
शिक्षकः विद्यार्थिने कृध्यति The teacher is angry with the student
• द्रुह् To cause injury
व्याधः व्याघ्राय द्रुह्यति .The hunter injures the tiger
( Note: When कृध् and द्रुह् are prefixed with an उपसर्गः then the person towards whom the anger and the injury is directed is in the second vibhakti- माता पुत्रम् अभिक्रुध्यति, The mother is angry with her son.
तम् अभिद्रुह्य सः पलायितवान् | Having injured him, he ran away.)
• ईर्ष्य्/असूय् To feel malice/ hatred/jealousy/envy
मन्थरा रामाय ईर्ष्यते / मन्थरा रामाय असूयते | Manthara is jealous of Rama
• कथ ,निवेदय , ख्या ,शंस् .चक्ष् -To tell.
माता पुत्राय कथयति mother tells the son/ मन्त्रिणः राज्ञे निवेदयन्ति the ministers inform the king/ रामः गोपालं ख्याति Rama explains to Gopala/ सेवकः प्रभवे शंसते The servant praises (his) Master/ भार्या भ्रताराय चष्टे The wife tells (her) husband.
• दा (यच्छ), अर्प, To give.
माला लतायै पुस्तकं यच्छति Mala give a book to Lata/
पूजकः देवाय फलानि अर्पयति | The priest offers fruits to the God.
( Note: यज् - to sacrifice or give as in a sacrifice, the person to whom the sacrifice is offered is in the second vibhakti and the offered gift is in the third. This is explained in the previous lesson)
• उपदिश् - To guide, to direct one to the right course/path.
वसिष्ठः रामाय उपदिशते
• रुच् – to like. The person who likes is placed in the dative and the object that is liked is placed in the first vibhakti, the nominative case in the case of the रुच् धातु and other verbs that convey a similar meaning.
गणेशाय मोदकं रोचते | गणेशाय मोदकं स्वदते | Ganesha likes modak (a sweet)
• स्पृह् – to like. The opposite holds true here and only in the case of स्पृह् | The person who likes is in the nominative case and the object that is liked is placed in the fourth, the dative case.
गणेशः मोदकाय स्पृहयति | Ganesha likes modak.
• धृ (10th गण ) to owe. The person, to whom one owes something, is in the fourth vibhakti.
रामः देवदत्ताय शतरूप्यकाणि धारयति | Rama owes Devadutta a hundred rupees.
• क्लृप् कल्पते (होना, के लिये ), जन्, सम्पद्, भू verbs having a similar sense as in 'adequate for', tends to',' brings about'…. the result or the end product is placed in the fourth vibhakti
विद्या ज्ञानाय कल्पते / विद्या ज्ञानायसम्पद्यते / विद्या ज्ञानाय जायते | Knowledge tends to lead to /brings about wisdom.
• प्रति + श्रु, आ+श्रु (to promise..... the person to whom a thing is promised is in the dative.)
रामः कृष्णाय पुस्तकं प्रतिश्रुणोति | Ram promises to give Krishna a book.
• That which is foreboded by a significant phenomenon is placed in the dative.
वाताय कपिला विद्युत् | ... , the tawny lightening forebodes a hurricane.
• प्रणिपत् / प्रणम् ( also accusative)
अहं देवाय प्रणिपतामि / अहं देवाय प्रणमामि/ अहं देवं प्रणिपतामि /अहं देवं प्रणमामि | I bow to the Lord.
• हितम् ( also used with the sixth vibhakti and the vocative case if it means 'good in or to' ) / सुखम् good
ब्राह्मणाय हितम् / ब्राह्मणाय सुखम् | This is good for a Brahmana.
• भद्रम् /कुशलम् / सुखम् greeting, blessing. ( also used with the sixth vibhakti)
देवदत्ताय भद्रम् / देवदत्ताय कुशलम् / देवदत्ताय सुखम् ! , May auspiciousness be upon Devadutta!
• Verbs meaning to despatch or send.... the person one sends something to is in the dative and the thing which is sent and the place it is sent to is in the accusative.
बालकः अम्बायै पत्रं प्रेषयति | The boy sends his mother a letter.
नृपः सेवकं ग्रामं प्रेषयति | The king sends the servant to village.
• दर्शयति ( also in accusative.)
यशोदा कृष्णाय सूर्यं दर्शयति | Yashoda shows Krishna the sun.
यशोदा कृष्णं सूर्यं दर्शयति | Yashoda shows Krishna the sun.
• The secondary object with the root "to think", takes either the dative or accusative when contempt is to be shown. (Note: it takes the accusative alone, when contempt is NOT to be shown.)
अहं त्वां तृणाय मन्ये | I consider you as worthless as grass.
अहं त्वां तृणं न मन्ये | I do not consider you as worthless as grass.
• When physical motion is indicated, the place to which it is directed is either accusative or dative.
कृष्णः ग्रामाय गच्छति | Krishna goes to the village.
कृष्णः ग्रामं गच्छति | Krishna goes to the village.
• The person who is propitiated or to whom questions regarding welfare or good fortune are asked...
राघ् (राघ्यति ) to propitiate
ईक्ष् (ईक्षते ) to look to the welfare of anyone.
कृष्णाय राघ्यति गर्गः | Garga propitiates Krishna.
कृष्णाय ईक्षते गर्गः | Garga looks to the welfare of Krishna.
• When the infinitive, तुमन्त, is suppressed in a sentence then the object of the तुमन्त is placed in the fourth vibhakti.
सः विज्ञानं पठितुं विद्यालयं गच्छति | He goes to school to study science. with "suppressed" तुमन्त, it will be,
सः विज्ञानपठनाय विद्यालयं गच्छति | He goes to school to study science.
• The dative of an abstract noun is used to express the purpose of the root of that noun.
सः धैर्याय पूजयति इष्टम् | To become courageous, he worships his chosen deity.
• The price at which a person is employed is placed in the instrumental case triteeya vibhakti or in the dative chaturthee vibhakti.
सा शतद्वयेन परिक्रीता | She is employed for two hundred rupees.
सा शतद्वयाय परिक्रीता | She is employed for two hundred rupees.
Let's move over to the fifth Vibhakti in the next Lesson 68.
Prev Lesson 66 ----- उपपद / कारक विभक्तिः तृतीया विभक्तिः Level 2. The third vibhakti. (Level 2. The third vibhakti.)
Next Lesson 68 ----- उपपद/ कारक विभक्तिः पञ्चमी- विभक्तिः Level 2. The fifth vibhakti. ( Level 2. The fifth vibhakti.)