Lesson 55 . Continuing with the Shatr शतृ.¬¬¬Present Continuous Participles.
|A quick note:
I have to apologise for my long silence. One and a half years of not giving you something new to study is criminal on my part. But my excuse is valid. We have finally finished designing our 3, 6-month courses¬¬¬¬ - आराधना, साधना and धारणा and now am absolutely free to work on our web lessons. Thankfully my web-students have been writing to me asking for help with their lessons and being in touch with them continuously helps me not to feel guilty!
The simple present tense, say for example the verb गच्छति, describes both
the present tense and the continuous in a simple sentence.
So बालकः गच्छति । means both
The boy goes, and The boy is going.
So what would you do if two actions are placed together, say in a sentence like -
The boy who is going is eating a fruit ?
You could say बालकः गच्छति फलम् खादति च । or say यः बालकः गच्छति सः फलम् खादति ।
But there is a far classier way of saying it- we use the the Active Present Continuous Participle.
गच्छन् बालकः फलम् खादति ।
So what are these continuous participles?
They are words formed out of धातु s. Retaining their ability to convey an action taking place, they become adjectives and follow the noun in three ways: लिङ्ग, विभक्ति and वचन ।
Let me give you simple examples and then I'll teach you how to form these words.
The boy studies.
The boy eats a mango.
The studying boy eats a mango.
The "studying" is the continuous participle. If the root word is परस्मैपदम् , you add the शतृ प्रत्यय and create a शतृ form. If the root word is आत्मनैपदम् , you add the शानच् प्रत्यय and create a शानच् form.
Let's concentrate on the शतृ forms first.
Step 1. ( M/ N forms)
Pick the लट् लकार प्रथम पुरुष form of the P.P. dhaatu you have chosen.
Let's take पठ् as an example. पठन्ति is the लट् लकार प्रथम पुरुष बहुवचन form.
Step 2. ( M/ N forms)
NOW… remove the इ from the end and the न् from the middle of the word
पठन्ति – इ – न् = पठत ।
Step 3. (M/ N forms)
THEN add a ् to the last letter to form तकारान्त M/N forms that are declined as भगवत् M and as जगत् N. (Please check Supplement 36
पठत + ् = पठत् M / N
There is a small difference here. The प्रथमा विभक्ति एकवचन form of भगवत् is भगवान् . Don't add the आकारान्त to the word. The usable form becomes पठन् and not पठान् ।
So now we have a sentence that says बालकः पठन् । This is not a complete sentence because the word पठन् is not accepted as a verb but as a participle….a verb cum adjective. To complete the picture you have to add Step 4.
Add the appropriate form of the अस् dhaatu in the tense that you wish to convey. That is : Add the अस् लङ् लकार to give you an effect of a continuous action taking place in the past.
बालकः पठन् आसीत् ।
Add the अस् लट् लकार to give you an effect of a continuous action taking place in the present. बालकः पठन् अस्ति।
Ditto for the future. बालकः पठन् भविष्यति ।
( Note: Classical Sanskrit prefers to use the ACTUAL verb forms here
बालकः अपठत्, बालकःपठति, बालकः पठिष्यति । And would use the continuous participle purely as adjectives. So that would mean that another action would be required here to complete the picture…
पठन् बालकः खादति । The studying/reading boy is eating.
पठन् बालकः आम्रं खादति । The studying/reading boy is eating a mango.
Use all the vibhaktis now….
पठन् बालकः खादति ।
अहं पठन्तं बालकं पश्यामि ।
अहं पठता बालकेन सह पाठशालां गच्छामि । and so on and so forth.
To form Feminine words:
Same as in M and N
1. DO NOT remove the न् from the middle of the word ( from 1, 4, 6, 10 dhaatus. If the dhaatus are from the other गण s, THEN alone does one remove the न् from the middle of the word. .... Easy Way, if there is an अ स्वर before the ति प्रत्यय (प्र. पु. ए. व.), then न् stays , otherwise, the न् does not. This holds true in most cases and can be used as an 'emergency technique.’)
2. Convert the इ into an ई
पठन्ति" (after having looked at पठति )- इ + ई = पठन्ती F that is declined as नदी । ( 1 P.P.)
कुर्वन्ति (after having looked at करोति ) – न - इ + ई = कुर्वती F that is declined as नदी । ( 8 P.P.)
Add the appropriate form of the अस् dhaatu in the tense that you wish to convey …. (Please re- read Step 4 …M and N forms
Now let's look at a few examples:
1. सः पठन् अस्ति । He is reading.
2. सः पठन् आसीत् । He was reading.
3. सा पठन्ती अस्ति । She is reading.
4. सा पठन्ती आसीत् । She was reading.
5. मम मित्रं पठत् अस्ति । My friend is reading.
6. अहं लिखन् अस्मि ।I am writing. M
7. अहं लिखन्ती अस्मि । I am writing. F
8. त्वं पठन् / पठन्ती असि । You are reading.
This is the simplest form of a sentence that you can create with these forms. Now let's look at how they are actually used. (Step four and five have already highlighted this.)
These words are participles. Participles= Adjectives. They MUST MUST MUST match the noun/pronoun in three ways: लिङ्गं, विभक्ति and वचन ।
(No, I’m not senile. I know I'm repeating myself but I'll do so till you never ever forget those instructions. So you better be patient with me… I can be as stubborn as a mule in some matters. Look out for similar repetitions in the next few lessons.)
Since I can form the entire विभक्ती table with these words, how will I use the rest of the विभक्ति s? Supplement 39 before you while you study the rest of the lesson.
Watch carefully now:
1. गच्छन् बालकः फलं खादति । The going boy is eating a fruit.
2. गच्छन्ती बालिका फलं खादति । The going girl is eating a fruit.
3. The talking girl is watching the eating boy. वदन्ती बालिका खादन्तं बालकं पश्यति ।
4. The girl who is g oing with the boy who is going. is also eating a fruit
(Yipes!) गच्छता बालकेन सह गच्छन्ती बालिका अपि फलं खादति ।
5. Give the studying boy milk. पठते बालकाय दुग्धं यच्छ ।
And I could have gone on giving you examples but it is time now that you do the work and I rest.
Do have a look at Supplement 39 to give you the Present Continuous forms of the dhaatu गम् . And to form the नपुं forms, check Supplement 36 the feminine forms go like नदी, so that should not cause a problem.
Exercises follow in Lesson 55 A
Prev Lesson 54 B --- Answers to Lesson 54 A (Answers to Lesson 54 A)
Next Lesson 55A --- Exercises with the शतृ प्रत्यय. (Exercises with the शतृ प्रत्यय.)