Lesson 6 Affronted गम् speaks up

Dear all,
I was going through the lessons that have already been sent to you and I can't believe that I have not been given my due. Let me introduce myself. I am गम् (go). I am a root word called a धातुः and like my other friends, वद् (speak), पठ् (read/ study), खाद् (eat), लिख् (write) etc, I am extremely versatile. By the simple addition of suffixes or prefixes, I can become a verb, or a noun, or an adverb, or an adjective.... And that is far more than the visarga-s and the anuswāra-s of this world can even hope to be. I think I better introduce you very gently to my multifaceted personality.

To make me into a verb, you have to use my avatāra गच्छ। Add different suffixes called प्रत्यय s and hey presto, I am ready to be used! Look at the sentences in the next slide, all in the present tense, and you will see what I mean. My friends have also chipped in to help.

सः गच्छति। सः वदति । सः पठति । सः खादति । सः लिखति ।
He goes. He speaks. He reads. He eats. He writes.
सा गच्छति। सा वदति । सा पठति । सा खादति । सा लिखति ।
She goes. She speaks. She reads. She eats. She writes.
तत् गच्छति। तत् वदति । तत् पठति । तत् खादति । तत् लिखति ।
It goes. It speaks. It reads. It eats. It writes.
रामः गच्छति। रामः वदति । रामः पठति । रामः खादति । रामः लिखति ।
सीता गच्छति। सीता वदति । सीता पठति । सीता खादति । सीता लिखति ।



Yup, the ति is added to the root verb, which makes it compatible with he, she, it, and with any name whether masculine or feminine BUT...

त्वं गच्छसि । त्वं वदसि । त्वं पठसि । त्वं खादसि । त्वं लिखसि ।
You go. You speak. You read. You eat. You write.
अहं गच्छामि । अहं वदामि । अहं पठामि । अहं खादामि । अहं लिखामि ।
I go. I speak. I read. I eat. I write.



  1. Do you see how the same suffix (प्रत्यय) has been added to all the धातु s to make the verb compatible with a particular subject?
  2. ति is loyal to सः, सा and तत् or for that matter to, say, सुमित्रा, सुधा, दशरथः, रावणः, पुस्तकं , विद्यालयः etc. (पार्वती लिखति परन्तु अहं लिखामि ... gettit?)
  3. सि is loyal only to त्वम् AND मि is loyal only to अहम् ।
  4. Please note that it is पठामि and not पठमि । There is an ा मात्रा added to the धातु before the प्रत्यय is added.
  5. गच्छति conveys both meanings - 'goes' and 'is going'
  6. Thus you can safely translate अहं वदामि as 'I speak' and 'I am speaking'
  7. Also, if you notice, since मि is loyal to अहं , I can simply say वदामि and the message that I am the one who is speaking and NO ONE ELSE, has been conveyed. Ditto with त्वम् ...the minute I say.. खादसि , it's YOU who are eating and NO ONE ELSE. I do not have to even mention the अहं or the त्वम् । The ति though, does need a specified subject. (Refer to 2 for reasons why)



Knowing this, you can now make two word sentences in Sanskrit using अहं, त्वं, सः, सा and तत् । Let me provide you with a few more everyday धातु s.
हस् to laugh, पच्  to cook, रक्ष् to protect, नम् namaskāra (to salute.)

Now , if you have noticed, गम् ( yours truly) becomes गच्छ before the suffixes are added. All the rest remain the same.

Similarly, two very important धातुs - पा (to drink) becomes पिब् and दृश् (to see) becomes पश्य
Henceforth, if the धातु's form must be changed before it can be used, the usable form will be given in brackets eg: गम् (गच्छ) or पा ( पिब् ) ।
Use पा ( पिब् ) and दृश् (पश्य) too to make some more two word sentences.

If you do need clarification of any kind, please do not hesitate to write. These teachers out here can't wait to be useful. Besides, they are eager to impress Swāmījī, who is an expert in Sanskrit and speaks the language fluently!
Yeah! It's my coming out ball, my debut! And honestly, I can't wait to work closely with you! .
All love, गम् ।

                                              More next week  No need to get tensed up with Tenses We present you the Present tense next


Prev Lesson 5---- Meet our exuberant Jagadisha! (Conversation starters - This- एषः एषा, That- सः सा ; भवान् भवती) Next Lesson 7---- Presenting the entire present tense deal. (Present Tense - लट् लकार, परस्मैपद)