Lesson 22. Learning how to formulate a verb form.
Trust all of you have survived the shock of knowing what is now in store for you. Now some pleasant news....Lesson 21 is the stage from which we begin Level 2 of our ongoing study of Sanskrit. To all of you who have clicked onto this lesson, a very warm welcome!
From now onwards, along with the verbs, you will be introduced to the गण to which it belongs as well. For example,
1. गम् (गच्छ् 1. P.P. to go.);
2. दा (यच्छ्1. P.P. to give.) ;
3. पठ् (1. P.P. to read or study.)
Note 1: In the first two cases, the changed form of the धातु is used in the verb forms. The usable form has therefore been given in brackets. In the third case, the original धातु is used in the verb form and therefore the need to repeat it does not arise. This style is THE style that is adopted in all texts, dictionaries etc.
Note 2: The A.P. table has already been given in Lesson 21 A. Please refer to it whenever necessary. The rules that you have been following with the P.P. remain the same for the A.P. and the U.P. The subject MUST agree with the verb form. ALWAYS. No altercations. EVER.
The 1st, 4th, 6th and the 10th गण s are conjugated similarly. You have been doing this quite naturally the last three months, albeit without knowing the rules.
- चिन्त् for example, is a U.P. and from the 10th गण, the चुरादिगण | चिन्त् (10 U.P. to think.) It can be conjugated as both, चिन्तयति and चिन्तयते| It has been put into the 10th गण because of the addition of the विकरण‚ अय | The त् of the चिन्त् joins with the अ of the अय to give चिन्तय| Then, since it is a U.P., either a ति or a ते can be added as a प्रत्यय to give चिन्तयति or चिन्तयते| चिन्त् +अय + ति/ ते = चिन्तयति / चिन्तयते
(Do recall our second lesson that has explained how त् + अ = त)
So now if you were to see a कथ् (10. U.P. to tell/to narrate) what you will do is, कथ् + अय = कथयति / कथयते | Simple, ain't it?
- Now a look at examples from the 1st. The भ्वादिगणः | The विकरणः is अ| Therefore, गम् (गच्छ् 1. P.P. to go.); दा (यच्छ् 1. P.P. to give.) ; पठ् (1. P.P. to read or study.) very simply become गच्छति, यच्छति and पठति | सेव् ( 1. A.P. to serve) becomes सेवते |
- The विकरण for the 4th, the दिवादिगणः is य | Therefore, नृत् (4 P.P. to dance) becomes नृत् +य + ति = नृत्यति | If it were 10. P.P. it would become नृतयति, gottitt?????
जन् (जा , 4. A.P. to generate/ produce) becomes जायते |
The विकरण for the 6th, तुदादिगणः, is also अ.
लिख् (6 P.P. to write.) Therefore the verb becomes लिखति |
क्षिप् (6 U.P. to throw.) Therefore the verb becomes क्षिपति or क्षिपते|
|To put it simply
||भ्वादिगणः (प्रथमः गणः )
||दिवादिगणः (चतुर्थः गणः )
||तुदादिगणः (षष्ठः गणः )
||चुरादिगणः (दशमः गणः )
भ्वादिगणः (प्रथमः गणः ) Called so because the first verb ( धातु) in the list of verbs in this group (गण) is भू -भवति so भू+आदि = भ्वादि i.e beginning with भू
दिवादिगणः (चतुर्थः गणः ) Called so because the first verb ( धातु) in the list of verbs in this group (गण) is दिव् - दीव्यति (दिव् +आदि=दिवादि)
तुदादिगणः (षष्ठः गणः ) Called so because the first verb ( धातु) in the list of verbs in this group (गण) is तुद् -तुदति (तुद् + आदि= तुदादि )
चुरादिगणः (दशमः गणः ) Called so because the first verb ( धातु) in the list of verbs in this group (गण) is चुर् चोरयति (चुर् + आदि= चुरादि )
To put it simply:
Once you have had a chance at figuring out how to arrive at your verb form by knowing how it is classified, an entire new world opens up! If you needed another Sanskrit word for " to think," the dictionary would tell you, मन् ( 4.A.P.) and you would instantly come up with a मन्यते | Isn't it wonderful??!!
Let's concentrate on the 1st, 4th, 6th and the 10th. Conjugations.
The Buffet and the Banquet are at your service.
News flash from my stockbroker: Two dictionaries, An English -Sanskrit AND a Sanskrit -English will be excellent investments that promise rich dividends for life. (Vamanrao Apte's Students Dictionary is good.)
A शब्द-धातु-नामावलिः a slim book that gives you a complete knowhow of noun declensions and verb conjugations. Many publications are available. Nanveet, Anmol..... all are excellent.
Those abroad can plan on buying these “Necessary items to be added to already overfull bookshelves”, on your next trip to India. They are wonderful keys to help unlock the mystery that is Sanskrit!
Now over to the exercise section in Lesson 22 A.
Prev Lesson 21 B -- Classy Classifications. The Story of Panini. Part 2. (The Story of Panini. Part 2.)
Next Lesson 22 A -- Buffet Lesson P.P.s and A.P.s and U.P.s. (Past participles )