Lesson 20   Step 2. Commanding with the लोट् लकार |

1. How does one use the उत्तमः पुरुषः in a command or a request? i can hardly say अहं पिबानि and expect myself to order myself to drink. In the उत्तमः पुरुषः , the verb asks for permission...
   अहं कोष्ठे आगच्छानि किम् ? May i come into the room?
   आवां पुस्तकं पठाव  किम् ? May the two of us read the book?
   अपि वयं चित्रपटगृहं गच्छाम ? May all of us go to the cinema?
   न . No.
   यूयं मा गच्छत | No, all of you may not go to the cinema. पुनः च मा पृच्छत |
   And don't ask me again!
   पुनः is an अव्यय meaning "again."   मा   is an अव्यय that is used to say "don't / no" as in a request or a command. The न is used in a statement.
   Some examples: 
• अशोक, तत्र मा गच्छ   |
  And he answers, न, अहं न गच्छामि |
• दुर्जन, सज्जनं मा तुद |
  And the दुर्जनः answers, अहं तुदामि |
  And the सज्जनः says,परन्तु सः मां न तुदति !
 Do you understand how the मा and the न  are used?



2. Besides asking for permission in the उत्तमः पुरुषः, the लोट् लकार may also  be used to express a wish. Please take a look at the2002-2003  Chitrapur Math calendar. Right above Parama Pujya Anandashram Swamiji's photograph are the words " नन्दाम शरदः शतम्  "which mean "Let us be joyful for a hundred autumns."                                                                                         

Now comes the tricky one, the प्रथमः पुरुषः
• If i say, "शिष्य, पाठं पठ " or " शिष्य, पाठं पठतु " the meaning is clear enough.....i am speaking to the शिष्य and commanding him to  study. The शिष्य is सम्बोधनम्  एकवचनम्  and i may use either पठ or पठतु.... a point already discussed in Lesson 20, Level 1.
• What if i say, " शिष्यः पाठं पठतु" ...what do i mean by it? i am obviously not addressing the student, or else i would have used the word शिष्य | And i cannot use the verb पठ because i am using a प्रथम पुरुष एकवचन form ---शिष्यः, therefore i MUST use पठतु | Gettit?  What i am effectively doing is telling someone else to make sure that the student is studying. i might say these words to a class monitor, asking her to make sure that the student is studying while i go to the staff-room and have a cup of much-longed-for coffee.
            शिष्यः पाठं पठतु | Let the student study.
            बालकाः उद्याने क्रीडन्तु |  Let the boys play in the garden.
            बालक, उद्याने  क्रीड | Boy, play in the garden.
Suffice to say, whenever you come across the word " Let", use the लोट् लकार |



                                                             Over now to only Buffet exercises on Lessons 19 , 20( Step 1.) and 20 (Step 2.)

Prev Lesson 20 ---- Step 1. Commanding with the लोट् लकार | (Commanding ) Next Lesson 20 A -- Buffet exercises A) on Lessons 19, 20 ( Step 1.), 20 (Step 2.) (Buffet exercises A) on Lessons 19, 20 ( Step 1.), 20 (Step 2.) )