Lesson 20 Step 2. Commanding with the लोट् लकार |
1. How does one use the उत्तमः पुरुषः in a command or a request? i can hardly say अहं पिबानि and expect myself to order myself to drink. In the उत्तमः पुरुषः , the verb asks for permission...
अहं कोष्ठे आगच्छानि किम् ? May i come into the room?
आवां पुस्तकं पठाव किम् ? May the two of us read the book?
अपि वयं चित्रपटगृहं गच्छाम ? May all of us go to the cinema?
न . No.
यूयं मा गच्छत | No, all of you may not go to the cinema. पुनः च मा पृच्छत |
And don't ask me again!
पुनः is an अव्यय meaning "again." मा is an अव्यय that is used to say "don't / no" as in a request or a command. The न is used in a statement.
• अशोक, तत्र मा गच्छ |
And he answers, न, अहं न गच्छामि |
• दुर्जन, सज्जनं मा तुद |
And the दुर्जनः answers, अहं तुदामि |
And the सज्जनः says,परन्तु सः मां न तुदति !
Do you understand how the मा and the न are used?
2. Besides asking for permission in the उत्तमः पुरुषः, the लोट् लकार may also be used to express a wish. Please take a look at the2002-2003 Chitrapur Math calendar. Right above Parama Pujya Anandashram Swamiji's photograph are the words " नन्दाम शरदः शतम् "which mean "Let us be joyful for a hundred autumns."
Now comes the tricky one, the प्रथमः पुरुषः
• If i say, "शिष्य, पाठं पठ " or " शिष्य, पाठं पठतु " the meaning is clear enough.....i am speaking to the शिष्य and commanding him to study. The शिष्य is सम्बोधनम् एकवचनम् and i may use either पठ or पठतु.... a point already discussed in Lesson 20, Level 1.
• What if i say, " शिष्यः पाठं पठतु" ...what do i mean by it? i am obviously not addressing the student, or else i would have used the word शिष्य | And i cannot use the verb पठ because i am using a प्रथम पुरुष एकवचन form ---शिष्यः, therefore i MUST use पठतु | Gettit? What i am effectively doing is telling someone else to make sure that the student is studying. i might say these words to a class monitor, asking her to make sure that the student is studying while i go to the staff-room and have a cup of much-longed-for coffee.
शिष्यः पाठं पठतु | Let the student study.
बालकाः उद्याने क्रीडन्तु | Let the boys play in the garden.
बालक, उद्याने क्रीड | Boy, play in the garden.
Suffice to say, whenever you come across the word " Let", use the लोट् लकार |
Over now to only Buffet exercises on Lessons 19 , 20( Step 1.) and 20 (Step 2.)
Prev Lesson 20 ---- Step 1. Commanding with the लोट् लकार | (Commanding )
Next Lesson 20 A -- Buffet exercises A) on Lessons 19, 20 ( Step 1.), 20 (Step 2.) (Buffet exercises A) on Lessons 19, 20 ( Step 1.), 20 (Step 2.) )