Lesson 13. Welcome Tṛtīyā!

अहं मोदकं खादामि | Great. With what do i eat that delicious, mouthwatering, modak that has the ability to help me put on an extra kilo in a single bite?  With my mouth. मुखे |अहं मुखेन मोदकं खादामि | अहं मुखेन वदामि | अहं मुखेन खादामि वदामि च | i eat and speak with my mouth.
अहं हस्तेन लिखामि, आलिखामि खादामि |  i  write, draw  and eat with my hand.

It's time that the तृतीया विभक्ति be placed
Before us now that we are faced
With sentences that need to explain with what
part of my anatomy i hold that oversized pot.
हस्तेन  you say. i don't agree.
That pot is just too heavy for me.
हस्ताभ्याम् is the word i seek
At the vibhakti table, let's take a peek.
Plurals dear, you shall fret not.
Just two hands, are all i've got.
But i have fingers  and i have toes.
There's much that i can do with those.
With arrows i fight, with friends i play.
Let's learn the तृतीया विभक्ति  today.
First the vibhakti table for quick reference..


                                                                रामः अकारान्त पुंल्लिङ्गम्

विभक्ति  एकवचनम्  द्विवचनम्  बहुवचनम्
       तृतीया by, with  रामेण  रामाभ्याम्  रामैः




वन ( forest) ‚अकारान्त नपुं॰


एकवचनम् द्विवचनम् बहुवचनम्
तृतीया by, with  वनेन  वनाभ्याम्  वनैः




From the third vibhakti onwards, the अकारान्त पु॰ and the अकारान्त नपुं॰ are rhymed and declined  in the same manner! Hallelujah!!

                                                            माला ( name of a girl/ a garland) आकारान्त स्त्री॰
विभक्तिः एकवचनम् द्विवचनम् बहुवचनम्
तृतीया by, with  मालया  मालाभ्याम्  मालाभिः


                                                                                           Back to our newest concept....

कर्णः ear, is a पुं॰ word. अहं कर्णेन आकर्णयामि | Oh dear ! It seems as if only one of  my ears has the capacity to hear. Poor me.
अहं कर्णाभ्याम् आकर्णयामि |  i listen with my two ears. ( what would you say if you were Ravana?! ) The word for eye is नेत्रम् | नेत्रम् is नपुं ॰ | अहं नेत्रेण पश्यामि |  It is obvious that i'm winking, unless i am blind in one eye. अहं नेत्राभ्याम् पश्यामि | There we have it. i see with my two eyes. As for my nose, it is feminine.. नासिका | अहं नासिकया जिघ्रामि | रावणः नासिकाभिः जिघ्राति |


Recall of Concept
Do you recall the concept introduced in Lesson 10. Neuter words to the rescue? Refer to it first before moving ahead.
In the तृतीया विभक्ति, we have
रामेण, ईश्वरेण, सूर्येण, शिष्येण etc...BUT देवेन, जनकेन, बालेन, शिवेन etc.
The exact rule to follow as to when न्  changes to ण्  is a whole lesson by itself. (Check our Frequently Asked Questions for a comprehensive answer)
Therefore, for the moment, the rule we follow is "Go by ease of expression."

Change the न्  into ण्  in declined words if you can say the declined word without your tongue turning cartwheels. Feel free to make mistakes at this stage. The idea is to understand HOW the trtiya vibhakti is used. Once i  teach you the न्  to ण्  rule, then i will expect accuracy in spelling.
Are you familiar with  the शिवकवचम् ?  Towards the end, there are these wonderful examples of the तृतीया विभक्तिः | The verb forms in the prayer, are those forms that show a request or an order and have not yet been introduced to you. But the general meaning is clear. Just concentrate on the तृतीया विभक्ति forms of the noun shown in blue.
The sadhaka asks of the Lord to do the following to his enemies ( pretty aggressively too as suggested by using each verb twice!)
त्रिशूलेन विदारय विदारय                      With the Trishul, tear asunder
कुठारेण भिन्धि भिन्धि                            With the axe, chop/destroy/split
खड्गेन छिन्धि छिन्धि                            With the sword cut off/ amputate
खट्वाङ्गेन विपोथय विपोथय                      With the staff, smash
(खट्वाङ्ग,  is the club or staff  with a skull on  top. It is a weapon that Shiva carries.)
(मम पापं शोधय शोधय)                     (cleanse me of my sins)
मुसलेन निष्पेषय निष्पेषय                      With the pestle, grind into powder           
बाणैः सन्ताडय सन्ताडय ...                    With arrows, hit
 i wouldn't be in that enemies' shoes (or whatever they used in those days) for the world.


Please memorize the first three vibhaktis of the three genders . Also do not miss  Supplement 5  which gives you the entire vibhakti tables for राम, देव, वन and माला| Use देव अकारान्त पुं० as your standard word for words without र् and  ष् |
                                                   Time now for exercises and new words and verbs. Let us move on to Lesson 13 A.



Prev Lesson 12 B -- Answers to lesson 12 A (Answers to Lesson 12 A) Next Lesson 13 A --- Exercises with Triteeyaa Vibhakti (Exercises with Triteeyaa Vibhakti)