Lesson 78. लृङ् लकार । Wishful thinking
The लृङ् लकार is a funny combination of the past and the future forms, just as its name suggests. Let's look at an example: अभविष्यत् । See how it begins with an अ, has a future "bit" in the centre, ष्य/स्य and has a past tense ending त् /त ।
The लृङ् लकार is used when you wish to convey the following ideas:
1) to denote "if such and such a thing had happened / might happen then such and such a thing would have happened / will happen". This therefore can be used to convey the past tense or the future. Many विद्वान् s prefer to use the विधिलिङ् for the future and use the लृङ् लकार only for the past.
For example: If she had taught well, I would have definitely passed the examination.
सा सम्यक् रीत्या अपाठयिष्यत् चेत् अहं निश्चयेन परीक्षायाम् उत्तीर्णा अभविष्यम् ।
2) When there is a non-realization of an action and therefore there is a presence of the characteristics of the conditional.
For example: If I were not blind, then I would have been able to appreciate the beauty of the world.
यदि अहम् अन्धं न अभविष्यं तर्हि पृथिव्यां सर्वेषां गुणानां सौन्दर्यम् अदृश्यम् ।
Naturally, you will need some reference material to see how the verbs are conjugated in all the three पुरुष s. Plan on buying a शब्दधातुरूपावलि that gives you all the 10 लकार s , Just remember that the आत्मनेपद-धातु s will end in a full त and not a त् ।
Read and understand:
लृङ् लकारे वाक्यानि |
1. यदि गोपालः सन्तरणकौशल्यम् अज्ञास्यत् तर्हि जलात् नाभेष्यत् ।
If Gopal knew how to swim then he would not be afraid of the water.
2. निशाश्चेत् तमस्विन्यो नाभविष्यन् को नाम चन्द्रमसो गुणं व्यज्ञास्यत् ।
If the nights were not dark then who would know (appreciate) the Moon's qualities?
3. यदि राजा दुष्टेषु दण्डं नाधारयिष्यत् तदावश्यं ते प्रजा उपापीडयिष्यन् ।
If the king did not punish the wicked then they would surely trouble the subjects.
4. यदि दक्षिण आफ्रिकास्थाः गौराङ्गाः शासकाः आजन्मसिद्धानधिकारान् भारतीयेभ्योऽदास्यन् तदा द्वयोर्जात्योः शोभनो मिथः सम्बन्धोऽभविष्यत् ।
If the South African white government officials would give the Indians their birthright then the mutual relationship between both the races would be good.
Here ends the lesson on लृङ् लकार । Wishful thinking Let us go to Lesson 79. अलङ्कार विचारः। Alankara-Vichara
Prev Lesson 77 ----- लिट् लकार The "unseen" past tense. (The "unseen" past tense.)
Next Lesson 79 ----- अलङ्कार विचारः। Alankara-Vichara (Alankara-Vichara)