Lesson 65. उपपद /कारक विभक्तिः द्वितीया विभक्तिः Level 2. The second vibhakti.
It is time that we take our study of Sanskrit to Level 2. You would have developed quite a bit of understanding of the language by now. However, when reading texts or when attempting to translate subhashitas, you might find yourself wondering why a particular vibhakti has been used and not another more 'logical' one. The answer is quite simple actually…. grammar rules. And how!
I'll take you through each vibhakti and list out the words that compel you to use a particular vibhakti. Explanations/examples follow after the list.
Let's understand a few technical terms first.
• The relationship between a noun and a verb is called कारक Therefore any relationship between words that are not connected to a verb cannot be called a कारक
• There are six कारकs in Sanskrit. कर्ता, कर्म , करण, सम्प्रदान , अपादान and अधिकरण i.e all the vibhaktis except the sixth.
• The sixth connects to another noun in a sentence and not to a verb and therefore is not categorized as a कारक For exmple: शिवस्य पुत्रः गणेशः | शिवस्य connects to पुत्रः
• Certain indeclinables, अव्ययs , are used with certain vibhaktis. For example when ever you use अभितः, which means 'all around', you need to use the second vibhakti. अध्यापकम् अभितः छात्राः उपविशन्ति |The students sit all around the teacher.
• Vibhaktis which are thus governed by indeclinables are उपपदविभक्तिs.
• Similarly, we have vibhaktis which are governed by verbs. For example, whenever you use the verb दा in any form, the person that the gift is given to is always'chosen' from the fourth vibhakti. अहं रामाय पुष्पं ददामि | I give Rama a flower.
• These verb-governed vibhaktis are called कारकविभक्तिs.
Now let's get to the job on hand:
Whenever you use the following words, you must use the द्वितीया विभक्तिः
You've already done a few in Level 1. Here is the complete list.
The प्रथमा विभक्तिः is used only to identify the subject and the number and gender of the subject. It is not an उपपदविभक्ति or a कारक विभक्ति .
|| 1. अन्तरा (between)
2. अन्तरेण (without, excepting, with reference to, regarding)
9. निकषा (near)
10. समया (near)
11. हा (woe be to)
12. धिक् (sometimes used with the nominative or vocative.)
13. उपर्युपरि , अधोऽधः , अध्यधि (when nearness is indicated otherwise use the षष्ठि )
2. Verbs signifying " to name", "to choose", "to make" " to appoint" " to call" " to know" " to consider" govern the accusative. जानामि त्वां प्रकृतिपुरुषम् | I know thee to be the chief person
3. गम् and all verbs that mean 'to go.' (greater detail is given in the explanation)
4. प्रविश् (also with the.स.वि. , and in the ष.वि. if अन्तर is used)
5. विश् (also with the.स.वि. , and in the ष.वि. if अन्तर is used)
6. प्राप् (destination)
7. आधिः+शी ( General rule to follow: when intransitive verbs are preceded by an upasarga, they are governed by the Accusative:अनु + वृत
= अनुवर्तते to follow, act according to; आ + रुह = आरोहति ascend; अनु + धावति = अनुधावति to run behind )
8. अधि + स्था
9. अधि + आस्
10. उप -अनु -अधि -आ-वस्
12. words denoting duration of space and time are put in the Accusative.
13. प्रणिपत् , प्रणम् ( also dative)
14. दर्शयति ( also dative)
15. the secondary object with the root , to think, takes accusative when contempt is NOT to be shown.
16. श्रद्धा governs the accusative. Other words implying belief and confidence govern the Locative.
prepositions used as separate
words NOT as upasargas
| 1. अनु after, in consequence of, being indicated by, resembling, imitating.
2. अभि before, in
3. उप near, inferior to
4. अति superior to
5. अनु the side of, along, inferior
Let's look at each one in greater detail:
• अन्तरा (between)
अन्तरा तं च तां ग्रन्थः| There is a book between him and her.
• अन्तरेण (without, excepting, with reference to, regarding).
त्वाम् अन्तरेण अहं न गमिष्यामि | I will not go without you.
तम् अन्तरेण कार्यं कः कर्तुं शक्नोति ? Who can do the work except for him?
रामायणेन अन्तरेण एव अहम् एतद् श्लोकं वदामि | I say this shloka only with reference to the Ramayana.
मां अन्तरेण तस्य कः विचारः? What is his opinion regarding me?
गृहम् अभितः वृक्षाः वर्तन्ते | There are trees all around the house.
गृहम् उभयतः वृक्षाः वर्तन्ते | There are trees on both sides of the house.
गृहं परितः वृक्षाः वर्तन्ते | There are trees all around the house.
अध्यापकं प्रति अहम् अगच्छम् | , I went towards the teacher.
त्वां विना सः विद्यालयं न गन्तुम् इच्छति | Without you he does not desire to go to school.
ग्रामं सर्वतः पर्वताः सन्ति | There are mountains all around the village.
• निकषा (near)
मम गृहं निकषा एकः तडागः वर्तते | There is a pond near my house.
• समया (near)
मम गृहं समया एकः तडागः वर्तते | There is a pond near my house.
• हा (woe be to)
हा अलसम् ! Woe be to laziness!
• धिक् (sometimes used with the nominative or vocative.)
चोरं धिक् | Fie upon the thief!
• उपर्युपरि , अध्यधि, अधोऽधः (when nearness is indicated use Dwiteeya, otherwise use the षष्ठि )
वृक्षम् उपर्युपरि मेघः / वृक्षम् अध्यधि मेघः, The cloud is just above the tree.
वृक्षस्य उपर्युपरि मेघः / वृक्षस्य अध्यधि मेघः, The cloud is far above the tree.
मेघम् अधोऽधः वृक्षः, The tree is just below the cloud.
मेघस्य अधोऽधः वृक्षः, The tree is far below the cloud.
The object in a sentence is always governed by the accusative द्वितीया विभक्तिः.
बालकः खगं पश्यति | The boy sees the bird.
• Verbs signifying 'to name', 'to choose', 'to make', 'to appoint', 'to call', 'to know', 'to consider' are governed by the accusative.
गणेशः तम् अनुचक्षते / सा तं संचक्षते Ganesh names him / She names him.
मालिनी पुष्पं चिनोति / मालिनी पुष्पं चिनुते | Gardener's wife chooses a flower.
कविः काव्यं करोति | The poet makes (composes) a poem
राजा मन्त्रिणं नियुनक्ति | The king appoints a minister
अहं गोपालम् आह्वयामि | I call Gopala
जानामि त्वां प्रकृतिपुरुषम् | I know thee to be the chief person.
सः सिद्धार्थं धनुर्धरं वेत्ति | He considers Siddhaartha as an archer
• गम् and all verbs that mean 'go'
When physical motion is indicated, the place to which it is directed is either in accusative or in dative (चतुर्थी विभक्तिः).
सः ग्रामं गच्छति / सः ग्रामाय गच्छति |
When mental motion is indicated, the place towards which it is directed is in accusative.
हरिं व्रजति |
• प्रविश् (also with the सप्तमी विभक्तिः, and in the षष्ठी विभक्तिः, if अन्तर is used)
• विश् (also with the.सप्तमी विभक्तिः, and in the षष्ठी विभक्तिः, if अन्तर is used)
सा गृहं प्रविशति / सा गृहे प्रविशति/ सा गृहं विशतिShe enters the house.
• प्राप् (destination)
तेन ग्रामं प्राप्तम् | The village was reached by him ( he arrived at the village)
• अधि + शी
खगः शाखाम् अधिशेते | The bird sleeps upon the branch.
( the general rule to follow: when intransitive verbs are preceded by an upasarga, they are governed by the Accusative:
• अनु +वृत् = अनुवर्तते to follow, act according to; आ + रुह् = आरोहति to ascend;
अनु + धाव् = अनुधावति to run behind)
• अधि +स्था
सः आसन्दम् अधितिष्ठति, He occupied ( stood upon) the chair.
• अधि +स्था
सः अध्यास्ते गृहम् | He sits in the house.
• उप -अनु -अधि -आ-when used with वस्
All these upasargas when added to वस् retain the original meaning of the word 'to stay'. Without the upasarga, वस् is used with the सप्तमी विभक्तिः.
• शिवः कैलासम् उप वसति - शिवः कैलासम् अनु वसति- शिवः कैलासम् अधि वसति- शिवः कैलासम् आ वसति | Shiva lives in Kailasa.
शिवः कैलासे वसति | Shiva lives in Kailasa.
• यज् the person to whom the sacrifice is offered is put in the Accusative and the means or the thing by which the sacrifice is made is put in the instrumental. सः समिधा रुद्रं यजते | He sacrifices समिधा (in fire) to Rudra.
• Words denoting duration of space and time which are governed by the Accusative case
• क्रोशं कुटिला नदी | The river runs winding for two miles.
न ववर्ष द्वादशवर्षाणि दशशताक्षः | The thousand eyed Indra did not 'rain' for twelve years.
• प्रणिपत् / प्रणम् ( also dative)
अहं गुरुं प्रणमामि/ अहं गुरुं प्रणिपतामि /अहं गुरवे प्रणमामि /अहं गुरवे प्रणिपतामि/ I bow to the Guru.
• दर्शयति ( also dative)
यशोदा कृष्णं सूर्यं दर्शयति | Yashoda shows Krishna the sun.
यशोदा कृष्णाय सूर्यं दर्शयति | Yashoda shows Krishna the sun.
• The secondary object with the root, to think, is governed by the accusative when contempt is NOT to be shown.
क्षम्यताम् अहं त्वां कृष्णं मन्ये | I'm sorry, I thought you were Krishna.
• श्रद्धा governs the accusative. Other words impying belief and confidence are governed by the Locative (सप्तमी विभक्तिः ).
कः श्रद्धास्यति भूतार्थम् ? Who will believe the real state of things?
मम विश्वासः शिवे अस्ति | My faith is in Shiva.
• अनु (after, in consequence of, being indicated by, resembling, imitating.)
जपं अनु अवर्षत् | It rained after japa.
• अभि (before, in)
भक्तः देवम् अभि तिष्ठति | The devotee stands before the Lord.
• उप (near, inferior to)
उप सूरजं श्यामः | Shyam is inferior/near to Suraj.
• अति (superior to)
अति देवान् शिवः | Shiva is superior to all the Gods.
• अनु (the side of, along, inferior)
अनु हरिं सुराः | The gods are inferior to Hari.
And that's that. We'll work on the तृतीया विभक्तिः next.
Onward to Tritiya Karaka in Lesson 66
Prev Lesson 64 ----- Samasa Vichara. समास – ( The second vibhakti.)
Next Lesson 66 ----- उपपद / कारक विभक्तिः तृतीया विभक्तिः Level 2. The third vibhakti. (Level 2. The third vibhakti.)