Lesson 45. The Study of Active Past Participles.
Over the last few months, our study of nouns and verbs has brought out a very important point: A root word can only be used in a sentence IF a suffix has been added. A suffix = प्रत्ययः
The प्रत्ययः is one, which, if added to a धातु, changes the धातु into a noun, an adjective or an indeclinable.
One of the प्रत्ययः s is called the कृदन्त प्रत्ययः ।
You are already familiar with 2 of the 5 कृदन्त प्रत्यय , though they have so far not been introduced as कृदन्त. The त्वान्त / ल्यबन्त and तुमन्त avyayas are कृदन्त s.
Let's appoint पठ् as our guinea pig. Through the use of this dhaatu, let's try and understand how the participle works. We can then apply it to all the other dhaatus.
पठ् has 5. कृदन्त forms.
1. The त्वान्त / ल्यबन्त .. पठित्वा, संपठ्य । Gerund
2. The तुमन्त .. पठितुम् Infinitive
3. The Past Participle, both Active and Passive.
4. The Potential Participle.
5. The Present Participle both Active and Passive.
Don't let these terms scare you. We'll concentrate on each one in turn and get the boogeyman out of them.
You know Points 1 and 2. You also know the active and the passive sentence constructions ....now let's see how the use of Point 3, helps us simplify sentence structures in the Past tense. First a quick recall of what we already know:
पठ् To read/study
सः अपठत् । He read. (Past tense, active)
सः पाठम् अपठत् । He read a lesson. (Past tense, active)
तेन पाठः अपठत । A lesson was read by him. (Past tense, passive)... please make sure you have understood the formation of passive sentences before you continue any further.
In the above three sentences, the dhaatu पठ् is in the form of a verb. When used as a participle, it becomes an adjective and follows the noun in three areas.. gender लिङ्गम्, number वचनम् ,and declension विभक्तिः ।
पठ् as a participle, takes the root past participle form: पठित । Supplement 37. gives you the root past participle forms of the dhaatu to help you further form the Active Past Participle AND the Passive Past Participle. You have already seen how the Gerund and the Infinitive of that root form is formed.... पठित्वा, पठितुम् । These forms are avyayas. Let's study the past participle in sections:
|M= पठितवत् is declined like भगवत् ।
F= पठितवती is declined like नदी ।
N= पठितवत् is declined like जगत् ।