Lesson 45. The  Study of  Active Past Participles.

Over the last few months, our study of nouns and verbs has brought out a very important point: A root word can only be used in a sentence IF a suffix has been added. A suffix = प्रत्ययः

The  प्रत्ययः is one, which, if added to a धातु, changes the धातु into a noun, an adjective or an indeclinable.
One of the प्रत्ययः s is called the कृदन्त प्रत्ययः ।
You are already familiar with 2 of the 5 कृदन्त प्रत्यय , though they have so far not been introduced as कृदन्त.  The त्वान्त / ल्यबन्त and तुमन्त  avyayas are कृदन्त s.


Let's appoint पठ् as our guinea pig. Through the use of this dhaatu, let's try and understand how the participle works. We can then apply it to all the other dhaatus.
पठ् has 5. कृदन्त forms.
1. The त्वान्त / ल्यबन्त  .. पठित्वा, संपठ्य । Gerund
2. The तुमन्त .. पठितुम्  Infinitive
3. The Past Participle, both Active and Passive.
4. The Potential Participle.
5. The Present Participle both Active and Passive.



Don't let these terms scare you. We'll concentrate on each one in turn and get the boogeyman out of them.
You know Points 1 and 2. You also know the active and the passive sentence constructions ....now let's see how the use of Point 3, helps us simplify sentence structures in the Past tense. First a quick recall of what we already know:

पठ् To read/study
सः अपठत् । He read. (Past tense, active)
सः पाठम् अपठत् । He read a lesson. (Past tense, active)
तेन पाठः अपठत । A lesson was read by him. (Past tense, passive)... please make sure you have understood the formation of passive sentences before you continue any further.


In the above three sentences, the dhaatu पठ्  is in the form of a verb. When used as a participle, it becomes an adjective and follows the noun in three areas.. gender लिङ्गम्,  number वचनम् ,and declension विभक्तिः  ।

पठ् as a participle, takes the root past participle form: पठित ।  Supplement 37. gives you the root past participle forms of the dhaatu to help you further form the Active Past Participle AND the Passive Past Participle. You have already seen how the Gerund and the Infinitive of that root form is formed.... पठित्वा, पठितुम् । These forms are avyayas. Let's study the past participle in sections:



The Active Past Participle:
The same root form पठित, is used as the The Active Past Participle  AFTER the प्रत्यय  "वत् " or "वती" is further added to it. The root form for पठ् as the active past participle becomes पठितवत् । NOW, it is an adjective. It is declined in the three genders as a Takaaranta word.
M= पठितवत् is declined like भगवत् ।
F= पठितवती is declined like नदी ।
N= पठितवत् is declined like जगत् ।
So, instead of saying सः अपठत् , त्वम् अपठः , अहम् अपठम् i simply say
सः पठितवान् , त्वं पठितवान् , अहं पठितवान् if all of us are men. Since सः , त्वं and अहं are all प्रथमा-विभक्तिः , i have to use the same for the पठितवत् which is now an adjective.

If we are dealing with women, it becomes: सा पठितवती , त्वं पठितवती , अहं पठितवती ।
If there are two men involved, the sentences would become: तौ /बालकौ  पठितवन्तौ । युवां पठितवन्तौ । आवां पठितवन्तौ ।
If there are two women involved, the sentences would become: ते/बालिके पठितवत्यौ । युवां पठितवत्यौ । आवां पठितवत्यौ ।
Many men: ते/बालकाः पठितवन्तः  । यूयं पठितवन्तः  । वयं पठितवन्तः ।
Many women: बालिकाः पठितवत्यः । यूयं पठितवत्यः । वयं पठितवत्यः ।


.Supplement 37 gives you the participle root forms of the dhaatu to help you form the Active Past Participle.
Let's work on only the प्रथमा विभक्तिः forms this week to help build our foundation. A few examples are given below:
1. The boy read a book. बालकः पुस्तकं पठितवान् ।
2. The girl read a book. बालिका पुस्तकं पठितवती ।
3. The teacher (M) taught a lesson. अध्यापकः पाठं पाठितवान् ।
4. The teacher (F) taught a poem. अध्यापिका कवितां पाठितवती ।
5. The two men saw a bird. मनुष्यौ खगं दृष्टवन्तौ ।
6. The two women saw a bird. महिले खगं दृष्टवत्यौ ।
7. The many boys played with a ball. बालकाः कन्दुकेन क्रीडितवन्तः।
8. The many girls prayed to the Lord. बालिकाः देवं नतवत्यः


And with that you can, with the help of Supplement 37 try out the exercises in Lesson 45 A.
                                                               Let's go on to the exercises in Lesson 45 A

Prev Lesson 44 B --- Answers to Lesson 44 A. (Answers to Lesson 44 A.) Next Lesson 45 A --- Exercises with the Active Past Participle. (Exercises with the Active Past Participle.)